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Hotel Akapana

Bolivia has major tourist destinations that highlight the international level, including: the Andean highlands or northern Bolivia, characterized by areas marked by the influence of the Andes and Lake Titicaca. It is noted for its natural beauty, mountains and glaciers, all this is complemented by authenticity in their dances and parties expressed in lavish and colorful entries Oruro Carnival in Oruro Department and The Great power in La Paz.

Forests, Savannas and Amazon, comprise a vast area of forests, swamps and savannahs of the Bolivian Amazon, covering the north and northeast of the Republic of Bolivia, in this region is the Madidi National Park.

White Deserts and Colored Lagoons, the region includes the southwestern corner of Bolivia, covering most of the department of Potos and Southern Oruro. The main resources that stand out are: the Salar de Uyuni and the Andean Reserve Eduardo Abaroa (REA).

The cities of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, also of the Jesuit Missions, has semi plains forests, mountains in the highlands of western and plains are interrupted by minor mountain massif Chiquitos.

To the south of Bolivia are the vineyards and fields of flowers and agricultural products, the dry forest region of Gran Chaco, Tarija city and the rivers Pilcomayo and Bermejo. In the departments of Chuquisaca and Potosi, with their capitals, both World Heritage Site by UNESCO (Sucre and Potos) is encuetnan colonial monuments, mining centers, natural areas and populations of native origin where guests can admire the architecture, the landscape and enjoy the welcome of its inhabitants.

 

TIWANAKU (TIAHUANACO)

It is the most important archaeological site in Bolivia, is located in the province Ingavi the department of La Paz, 70 km from the city and 15 miles from Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,885 meters above sea level. It is assumed that the Tiahuanaco culture was born between 1500 and 1400 BC, and collapsed for unknown reasons around 1100 to 1200 AD

Tiwanaku or Tiahuanaco is obviously one of the oldest cultures of America, the pre-colonial city of Tiwanaku was the capital and the territory of the Tiwanaku culture understood the Altiplano of Bolivia, Peru, Chile and Argentina, was characterized by subsistence base in agriculture, supported by a sophisticated system of agriculture, a type of grain to produce terraces altitude.
Tiwanaku was a densely populated urban center had a ceremonial civic center and a number of neighboring buildings covering an area of ??four square kilometers, have been founded around 300 AD and some buildings were not finished in 900 AD It has established the division of the Tiwanaku culture in 3 phases:

  • Villager, from 1500 B.C. - 45 D.C.

  • Urban, 45 D.C. - 700 A.D.

  • Expansive, the 700 D.C. - 1200 A.D.

With regard to knowledge and technology is characterized by having known the bronze, giving him a great technological and military advantage over other contemporary cultures of America.

The masonry at Tiwanaku reveals one of the most skilled construction jobs in South America,

binding systems of the stone blocks reflect an ancient metal use for constructive purposes. His great ability as builders and architects in their magnificent temples, their inclinations calculations on the walls and excellent technique enabled them to urban networking and surface channels to remove rainwater and served. Importantly, all temples have an astronomical orientation with amazing precision.

Crowds of men cut the stone in distant quarries and then transported it to the big city, with excellent office cantearon stones, cut stones reaching up to 10 tons, which gave rectangular shape and fit with great skill in striking the walls buildings in the city. The iconographic reliefs were covered with metal plates, making monuments cover some covers with gold.

The influence of Tiwanaku in South America can be seen in monuments of Peru (Inca culture), Ecuador, Chile, Argentina and in the eastern Amazon of Bolivia. Some scholars proposed it as the mother culture of the American civilizations, while others regarded it as the capital of an ancient megalithic empire. For the English researcher James Allen, Tiwanaku was one of the kingdoms of Atlantis of Plato.

Among his most important architectural buildings are:

KALASASAYA

Among the temples, the most impact is the Kalasasaya or "From Stones Stops" is a structure based on two hectares of sandstone columns with decorative gargoyles or drip drain for rainwater. It is a ceremonial center built with large stones five feet high, measures 126 meters long and 117 meters wide.

Inside there is a large rectangular courtyard sunk or underground temple which one descends a staircase carved in a single rock of six steps. Entering through the front door of the temple, is the Ponce Monolith, representing a priest, he appreciates the purest art of Tiwanaku, fine engravings iconographic as winged men, fish, lion heads and camels, condors and eagles . Inside you can see the remains of what would have been small room half underground. In the grounds there is a wall whose base is of blocks of sandstone that closes leaving both sides a sort of atrium that separates the central area or "ceremonial".

In this room there are two blocks containing a hole that mimics, at a human hearing aid through which you can hear noises or conversations that occur in remote sites, this allows to deduce that in the pre-Columbian world was known and applied acoustics. For its main entrance passing the sun at the equinoxes of autumn and spring, ie tiahuanacotas astronomers had deduced the solar year of 365 days.

TEMPLETE SEMISUBTERRANEO

It is one of the best pieces of architecture of Tiwanaku, was built two feet below the surrounding area, with a quadrangular surrounded by walls with 57 red sandstone pillars. Those walls are decorated with 175 stone heads whose features represent the various ethnic groups that were part of the empire.

It should be noted the drainage system in this building, developed through channels made ??of stone, with a perfect slope of 2% that still works today, and leading to a collector.

Embedded in the floor of the temple was the most anthropomorphic piece, known as Pachamama Monolith Monolith Bennett, is the largest in Tiwanaku, measuring 7.30 meters high and, like many parts of the site was carved from a single block rectangular in shape. In contrast to the perfection of the whole and details of Benett Monolith, is in Barbados or the Monolith Temple Wiraqocha Kontiki carved in sandstone, which is accompanied by two smaller steles.

PIRÁMIDE DE AKAPANA

Key and emblematic building of the civic center of Tiwanaku, arranged in relation to the stars. The building is pyramidal structure with seven stepped platforms, is 18 meters high and 200 feet on each side in the base.En the time was topped by sophisticated monuments where human sacrifices may be. Its current state is ruinous, as in the eighteenth century the Spanish Oyaldeburo excavated pyramid in search of treasure, horadndola from the top where there was a semi-subterranean temple would have had a cruciform staggered like a cross Andes. The retaining walls of the first terrace were padded and lined with stone blocks as follows edged with perfectly cut, these differences in construction techniques, it is presumed that the work was completed in a very lake.

PUMA PUNKU

It has a technique is much more refined and evolved than other buildings, highlighting the impeccable management of lithic material. Puma Punku or the Gate of the Puma is a temple with extraordinary architectural quality which covers an approximate area of ??two hectares. It has a pyramidal structure with a base formed by three platforms carved stones, the plant is rectangular with two wings extending from north to south in this area. At the top is a small temple with their gutters and west are the remains of what was once an access stairway. This monument was the subject of many forays into the time of the Incas and this was more marked in the colonial times and the Republic.

PUERTA DEL SOL

The most famous and important monument of Tiwanaku, located in Kalasasaya, is carved from a single block of andesite stone of ten tons, with 3 feet tall and almost 4 feet wide, and was presumably part of a larger building. In his bas-reliefs showing the worldview of the Tiwanaku culture with the image of the sun god in each hand holding a scepter with figures of birds and lightning, has thirty-two figures of men - sun and sixteen men - eagle, this language hieroglyphic codices and so far have not been disclosed, but some scholars assume that would be an annual calendar that marks the time of planting and harvesting. This iconography has spread throughout Peru, especially in the later Inca Empire, and part of Bolivia.

The Puerta del Sol was left unfinished, which increases the mystery about its meaning, is known worldwide as the largest show the degree of perfection reached Tiahuanaco culture, both for its art and its symbolism.

 

Hotel Akapana - 2012